D'un système dual (marché, planification) à un système unique : une nouvelle réforme du régime de la protection du chômage en Chine. TANG Jun

Chapitre

Titre: Introduction of the presentation by TANG Jun
Durée: 00:00:21   [00:00:00 > 00:00:21]
Langue(s): English
Introduction of the presentation by TANG Jun on the new regime of unemployment insurance in China.
Titre: The problem of laid-off worker in China and its implications
Durée: 00:02:37   [00:00:21 > 00:02:58]
The establishment of re-employment centers, as Professor Tang pointed out, was a state response to the massive unemployment in China. Such measure represented the urge of the state to reduce the impact of unemployment, to secure social and political stability. The establishment of re-employment centers is also born out of fiscal consideration, as the state lacked sufficient fund for social security coverages.
By 1997, the number of laid-off workers has reached 66.9% of the total unemployment. Facing the potential of a political instability caused by massive unemployment, the Chinese government had since initiated the re-employment service centers, offering services such as professional training and career re-orientation, to help laid-off workers to seek re-employment. The political factor played an important role in the establishment of these re-employment centers, as the party wanted to avoid any potential political repercussions caused by large number of unemployment. Secondly, from the fiscal perspective, helping laid-off workers to seek employment also helped the central state to work with the problem of insufficient social security coverage.
Titre: The establishment of the “binggui” system
Durée: 00:04:58   [00:02:58 > 00:07:57]
Since 2000, with China about to join WTO, there was to be more and more unemployment, as more and more reforms took place on the management of the enterprises. Thus, there was the merger, called “binggui,” between the “basic livelihood guarantee program for laid-off workers” and “unemployment insurance.”
The “binggui” reform was carried out in three steps: The first period from December 2000 to June 2001 was the preparation stage; the second period from 2001 July to 2003 June was the implementation period of the "binggui" system; the third period from December 2003 to January 2004 was the concluding period. The state, the enterprises and employees have all shown enthusiasms and eagerness for the implementation for the implementation of the “binggui” system, especially in Northern cities like Shen Yang.
Titre: Economic compensations for the laid-off workers, after the “binggui” reform
Durée: 00:04:16   [00:07:57 > 00:12:13]
The economic compensations were mainly decided by the amount of the time an employee has worked in a state owned enterprise.
For each year the employee had worked, he would receive the equivalent of one month salary as economic compensation for his lay off. However, total amount that a laid-off employee would receive could not exceed that of 12 months of his salary. The salary level is based on the average salary an employee received in the 12 months preceding his lay off. Because of the fact that the enterprises that have to lay off employees are often times precisely the enterprises that is in deficit, making it difficult to calculate the month average salary of the enterprise or below the minimum average month salary of Shen yang, for example, 342 yuan (in 2001).
Titre: Basic livelihood allowance
Durée: 00:01:47   [00:12:13 > 00:14:01]
Aside from economic compensation after lay off, employees also receive basic livelihood allowance, the amount of which is decided by the time they have worked.
For employees who have worked less than 10 years, they could receive 1000 yuan of basic livelihood allowance. For employees who have worked from 10 to 15 years, they could receive 1500 yuan of basic livelihood allowance. For employees who have worked from 15 to 20 years, they could receive 2000 yuan of basic livelihood allowance. For employees who have worked from 20 to 25 years, they could receive 2500 yuan of basic livelihood allowance. For employees who have worked more than 25 years, they could receive 3500 yuan of basic livelihood allowance. The maximum amount of livelihood allowance a person could receive is 3500 yuan.
Titre: Additional compensation
Durée: 00:02:47   [00:14:01 > 00:16:49]
The enterprises would also give to the employees, who were approaching the age of retirement and who opted for “binggui,” an additional compensation.
This additional form of compensation applies to male employees above the age of 50 and to female employees above the age of 40. This additional compensation is comprised of two month of salary, based on the average salary level of the enterprise, for each year left until the retirement age. For companies that are doing relatively well but have redundancy, such additional compensation serves as an incentive to invite employees to join the “binggui” process.
Titre: Change in worker’s status after “binggui”
Durée: 00:05:15   [00:16:49 > 00:22:04]
Professor Tang argues that “binggui” reflected the characteristics of the Chinese society, which is “strong state and weak society.” Laid-off workers have very little negotiation power in relation to the state. Often times, they find themselves in a vulnerable position after “binggui.”
The reason for workers’ relatively weak position in negotiation with the state can be traced back to the fact that labor union in China was closely connected to the Chinese party. Labor union in China, as Tang pointed out, is often considered as a branch of the Communist party, as opposed to an independent organization that serves to negotiate for the benefit of the workers. While workers represented the quasi-middle class status before the “binggui” reform, after the reform, they have lost the status as the middle class. Moreover, their privileged positions as leading class were reduced. This also means that the workers were, to a certain extent, left on a rather vulnerable position.
Titre: “Binggui” reform did not solve the re-employment issue of laid-off workers
Durée: 00:03:39   [00:22:04 > 00:25:43]
“Binggui” did not really solve the re-employment issue of laid-off workers, especially that the re-employment centers were closed after “binggui”, making it difficult for laid-off workers to seek re-employment, especially in Northern China.
While “binggui” provided incentives for state owned enterprises to lay off redundancy, they have not yet to become modern enterprise as the employment and management schemes are colored with characteristics of planned economy.
Titre: How to ensure social justice and social equality in the “binggui” process
Durée: 00:01:15   [00:25:43 > 00:26:59]
As more often it was the workers who were laid off, as opposed to the management level employees, posing problems of the justice.
The dual system does not imply non-state enterprise employees. For example, agricultural workers as well as migrant workers do not benefit from any form of unemployment insurance for the implementation of dual system. Professor Tang raised two questions for future research: How to solve the re-employment issue of laid-off workers? How to solve the question of unemployment security of agricultural workers, after “binggui”?
Titre: “Binggui” reform did not cover non-state owned enterprises
Durée: 00:03:18   [00:26:59 > 00:30:17]
The dual system does not imply non-state enterprise employees. For example, agricultural workers as well as migrant workers do not benefit from any form of unemployment insurance for the implementation of dual system.
Titre: Discussion
Durée: 00:07:40   [00:30:17 > 00:37:57]
Professor TANG Jun discussed with the audience the differences between "employee" and "worker" in China.

11 chapitres.
Titre: D'un système dual (marché, planification) à un système unique : une nouvelle réforme du régime de la protection du chômage en Chine
Auteur(s): TANG Jun
Durée: 00:37:57
Date de réalisation: 25/06/2002
Lieu de réalisation: Varna, Bulgaria
Langue(s): Français ; Zhongwen (中文)
Professor Tang discussed the new unemployment insurance system in China called “binggui,” which combines the “basic livelihood guarantee program for laid-off workers” and “unemployment insurance,” as a means to provide subsidiaries for laid-off workers as well as to ensure social and political stability.
Focusing on the reforms of state-owned enterprises in China, Professor Tang presented the social implications of “xiagang” (reduce labor redundancy) in state owned enterprises and the livelihood problems of laid-off workers. Professor Tang discussed the new unemployment insurance system in China called “binggui,” which combines the “basic livelihood guarantee program for laid-off workers” and “unemployment insurance,” as a means to provide subsidiaries for laid-off workers as well as to ensure social and political stability. Professor Tang concluded that the “binggui” system reflected the characteristics of the Chinese society, namely “strong state and weak society.” He argues that laid-off workers have little negotiation power in relation to the state. While “binggui” system provided incentives for state enterprises to reduce labor redundancy, it did not really solve the re-employment issue of laid-off workers.
Sujet: Pays
Topique: Chine (République populaire)
Localisation temporelle du sujet: From China's economic reform in 1978 to 2002 ; 1978/2002 ; XXIe siècle ap. J.-C. ; XXe siècle ap. J.-C.
Starting from 1978, under the leadership of DENG Xiaoping, China launched a series of economic reforms, including the reform of state-owned enterprises. Important measures of restructuring labor forces led to reduction of labor force redundancy.
Type de discours consacré au sujet: Bilan historique
Sujet: Sujet
Topique: Market economy based employment policies
Mots-clés: market economy; re-employment
Libellé: The restructuring of labor force from planned economy to market economy
Mots-clés: Restructure; Planned economy; Market economy; State-owned enterprise
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire)
Localisation temporelle du sujet: From China's economic reform in 1978 to 2002 ; 1978/2002 ; The beginning of China's economic reform ; XXIe siècle ap. J.-C. ; XXe siècle ap. J.-C.
Starting from 1978, under the leadership of DENG Xiaoping, China launched a series of economic reforms, including the reform of state-owned enterprises. Important measures of restructuring labor forces led to reduction of labor force redundancy.
Type de discours consacré au sujet: Explication
In this video, professor Tang explains the labor market transformation in China after 1978, using examples from his own research.
The employment policies in market economy follow the dynamics of demand and supply, as an efficient way of organizing labor force. In planned economy, it is the state that controls the labor market, creating overstaffed state-owned enterprises.
This presentation by Professor TANG discussed the problem of laid-off workers, while restructuring of labor force from planned economy to market economy in China.
Sujet: Sujet
Topique: Unemployment insurance
Libellé: Reform of unemployment insurance program
Mots-clés: binggui; unemployment; insurance
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire)
Localisation temporelle du sujet: From China's economic reform in 1978 to 2002 ; 1978/2002 ; XXIe siècle ap. J.-C. ; XXe siècle ap. J.-C.
Starting from 1978, under the leadership of DENG Xiaoping, China launched a series of economic reforms, including the reform of state-owned enterprises. Important measures of restructuring labor forces led to reduction of labor force redundancy.
Starting from 1978, under the leadership of DENG Xiaoping, China launched a series of economic reforms, including the reform of state-owned enterprises. Important measures of restructuring labor forces led to reduction of labor force redundancy.
Type de discours consacré au sujet: Explication
In this video, professor Tang explains the new regime of unemployment insurance, using examples from his research.
Unemployment insurance program provides a safety net to eligible workers during times of unemployment.
This video presents a new regime of unemployment insurance in China, which combines the “basic livelihood guarantee program for laid-off workers” and “unemployment insurance.”
Nom: TANG
Prénom: Jun
Rôle: Professeur
Appartenance: FMSH - Fondation Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Paris, France
Fonction: Professor
Adresse: Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, CHINA
TANG Jun is a professor of sociology at Beijing University of Technology. Professor Tang is research interests involve the sociology of laid-off workers in industrial provinces in China and in Europe.
Type: Exposé(s) scientifique(s)
This is a scientific talk given by Professor TANG on the new regime of unemployment insurance in China called ‘binggui” that had been put into practice in 2000.
Type: Contexte "Recherche"
Public cible: Pour tout public
This is a scientific talk given by Professor TANG on the new regime of unemployment insurance in China called ‘binggui” that had been put into practice in 2000. This presentation is intended for introducing the key issues on unemployment insurance regime in China to a general public.
TANG Jun. « D'un système dual (marché, planification) à un système unique : une nouvelle réforme du régime de la protection du chômage en Chine » Archives Audiovisuelles de la Recherche (ARC), n°10, 2012, [en ligne] ; URL : http://www.archivesaudiovisuelles.fr/10
Type: Droit d'auteur relatif à la production du document source
© ESCoM-AAR (Equipe Sémiotique Cognitive et Nouveaux Médias, Archives Audiovisuelles de la Recherche), FMSH (Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme), Paris, FRANCE
Type: Droit d'auteur relatif à la réalisation du document source
© BILIETINA, Charles, Producer, ESCoM-FMSH, Paris, France, 2002 © CHALLULAU, Hélène, Producer, ESCoM-FMSH, Paris, France, 2002
Type: Droit d'auteur relatif au contenu du document source
© TANG, Jun, Professor, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China, 2002
Type: Régime général "Creative Commons" relatifs au document source
This audiovisual resource is protected by the "Creative Commons" regime. You are free to reproduce it, distribute and communicate to the public. But you must report his paternity (its authors), you don't have the right to modify or to make commercial use. Reading, dissemination and practical exploitation of this audiovisual resource presupposes that you have accepted the Creative Commons legal rules described in the page
Titre: Thematic analysis in English of the video «D'un système dual (marché, planification) à un système unique : une nouvelle réforme du régime de la protection du chômage en Chine»
Langue(s): English
Comment citer: WEI, Boya. "Thematic analysis in English of the video « D'un système dual (marché, planification) à un système unique : une nouvelle réforme du régime de la protection du chômage en Chine» " (AGORA, 2014), http://www.agora.msh-paris.fr/
Id analyse: e8042a58-bc7b-4c5c-9105-05f6828f7a73
Id vidéo: e645a6e8-48dd-4fbc-a8e1-3d3338e90d40
This analysis discusses the different themes covered in the presentation of TANG Jun on China’s new scheme of unemployment insurance.