An ethno-sociological view on the Chinese and Uyghur music. EYYUBOVA Aygun, TREBINJAC Sabine

Chapitre

Titre: Introduction of the interview
Durée: 00:01:03   [00:00:00 > 00:01:03]
Titre: Intellectual trajectory of Sabine Trebinjac
Durée: 00:01:53   [00:01:03 > 00:02:56]
Before leaving for China, Sabine Trebinjac was trained as a historian, as well as in Chinese and Oriental Studies. In 1982, she came to study Ancient History of China at Beijing University where she received a Master degree. Upon returning to France four years later, Trebinjac resumed her studies in History at Sorbonne University and obtained Maîtrise en Histoire. Then, she changed research directions after being introduced to ethnomusicology studies at University of Paris Nanterre, where she obtained a DEA (Le diplôme d'études approfondies). Afterwards, she started her field research on Uyghur music in Xinjiang.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
来中国之前,Sabine Trebinjac女士在法国专攻历史学以及汉学。她1982年时来到北京大学进修中国古代史,并获历史学硕士。回到法国之后,她在法国索邦大学继续学习历史,并获得历史学硕士。随后,她转变研究方向专攻民族音乐学,并在巴黎第十大学获得DEA证书。随后,Trebinjac女士到中国新疆研究维吾尔音乐。
Titre: The history of Trebinjac's research in China
Durée: 00:01:21   [00:02:56 > 00:04:18]
Trebinjac first arrived in China in 1982. She obtained a scholarship from the Chinese government to study at Beijing University, and later on at China Music Conservatory.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
1982年,Trebinjac女士 获得中国政府的奖学金,首次来到中国。她先后在北京大学和中央音乐学院进修。
Titre: Other researchers specialize in Chinese musicology
Durée: 00:01:22   [00:04:18 > 00:05:40]
Trebinjac notes that language poses difficulties in advancing researches on Central Asia, as students were more prone to approach the subjects that using Chinese or Russian.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
虽然有诸多学者研究中国音乐,很少有人通过研究音乐机构来了解中国的政权。其中,语言障碍起重要作用,尤其是中亚地区的研究,学生更希望通过中文以及俄语进行研究。
Titre: Research area: Music, an affair of the state in China
Durée: 00:05:20   [00:05:40 > 00:11:01]
While studying at China Music Conservatory in the 1980s, Trebinjac discovered that in China popular music was produced at the Music Conservatory, and not by the artists. Also, she noted that music played an important role in the construction of political legitimacy of the state.
In China, there was an institution in charge of the production of music in each dynasty, such as the Office of Conservatory (Yue Fu) established in Han dynasty. After a functional analysis of musical institutions in the state, Trebinjac was able to understand the internal organization of the state. She points out that the ways in which music institutions were organized in China cohere with the territorial organization of the state at three levels: the national, the provincial as well as the local level.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
在中央音乐学院学习期间,Trebinjac女士发现中国80年代的流行音乐大多是在中央音乐学院里集中创作的,而并非出自艺术家的个人创作。 通过实地考察研究,她发现音乐在中国维护政权的合法性方面起着很大的作用。每个朝代有自己的乐府即音乐管理机构,雇佣众多官吏。在研究乐府的功能的同时,Trebinjac女士还研究了朝廷中央内部的权力机构划分。她发现音乐管理机构的组织结构与地方,省级,中央的三级地域划分相吻合。
Titre: Music collection: State traditionalism applied to music
Durée: 00:02:52   [00:11:01 > 00:13:54]
Trebinjac points out that the practice of music inventory is a Chinese tradition. Music plays an important role in the state building process in China. She also laid out the process of the practice of music inventory: Central government first ordered the local authority to collect folk music; The collected music, after being refashioned by the music conservatory, was then reintroduced to the local level. Specifically, Trebinjac employs the term “state traditionalism (traditionalisme d’Etat)” to capture the practice of purging folk music, and presenting a “cleaned” version of music, as sanctioned by the state.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
Trebinjac 女士提出音乐在巩固政权方面起很大的作用。民乐采集是一个具有中国特色的传统:由中央发达出的指令,要求地方政府收集民歌,在经过中央乐师的加工创作之后,官方认证的民歌再次回到地方去。Trebinjac女士用国家对民族音乐的再次加工来解释民乐搜集的传统。
Titre: What does Chinese music represents?
Durée: 00:04:01   [00:13:54 > 00:17:55]
Trebinjac discusses the differences between citizenship and nationality, while talking about Han majority and ethnic minorities in China. While all ethnicities in China have the same citizenship, as Trebinjac argues, being “Han” or “Uyghur” speak of different nationalities. She further argues that the concept of “Chinese music” does not exist on its own, as each ethnic music genre has its unique musicological origin. In this sense, “Chinese music” is constituted by many musical traditions.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
Trebinjac女士认为汉族以及少数民族在概念上的划分主要集中在对“公民”以及“民族”的理解,“汉族” 和“维吾尔族”同属于公民的范畴,而为不同民族。 由于每个民族音乐都有自己的音乐基础,中国音乐不是原本就存在的。从这个角度来看,中国音乐是由多种音乐传统在“加工”后而融合为一体的。
Titre: Uyghur music identity and its place in China
Durée: 00:06:51   [00:17:55 > 00:24:46]
Trebinjac notes that Uyghur music has many unique characteristics, making it very different from Han music culture. With more complex rhythms, Uyghur music uses ternary form over binary form as is often the case in Han music. She specifies that the binary structure, like yin and yang, is central to Han culture.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
维吾尔音乐具有着与汉族音乐不同的特有特征。维吾尔音乐有复杂的韵律结构,以三节拍为基础,不同于以两节拍为主的汉族音乐。Trebinjac 女士指出例如“阴阳”这样的二元结构是汉族文化的中心。
Titre: Uyghur muqam
Durée: 00:05:05   [00:24:46 > 00:29:52]
Uyghur music can be further divided into two branches: the classical music genre which integrates “muqam”, on the one hand; and popular music, on the other hand.
The classical music genre (muqam) is part of the high-culture music. It follows the structure of a set of sequences: First, an introduction called “bach muqam”; then the first part “tchoun nekhme,” which is comprised of alternations of instrumental segments and vocal segments; next, the second part of Muqam, which is called “dastan”; finally the last part, called “mechreb,” which represents an ending in which the rhythm becomes more rapid. Uyghur Muqam is comprised of twelve muqams with each muqam takes about 2 hours to perform. Thus, to perform the entire twelve muqams, it would take around 24 hours to complete.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
木卡姆 (Moqam) 音乐调式时是古典音乐的高级文化一部分,有固定的韵律结构。木卡姆由三部分组成,其中曲头的介绍名为 “bach muqam”。第一部分名为大乃额曼“tchoun nekhme,” 在这一部分声乐和乐器段落交替进行的。第二部分被称为达斯坦(叙事诗dastan)。 第三部分节奏明快的曲调被称为麦西热甫“mechreb” 。维吾尔十二木卡姆是由十二套每段为2小时左右的木卡姆组成的。全部演唱完十二木卡姆大概需24多个小时。
Titre: Uyghur popular music in Xinjiang
Durée: 00:01:39   [00:29:52 > 00:31:32]
When it comes to popular music, Trebinjac notes, 90% of the music are about love. The Uyghur music identity is intricately linked with geographical traits.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
维吾尔民歌流行歌曲中90% 是围绕着爱情为主题的。另外, 维吾尔的音乐特性是和地域特征紧密联系起来的。
Titre: An extract of the music:the part of Dastan of the muqam “Rak”
Durée: 00:09:07   [00:31:32 > 00:40:40]
Trebinjac chose the “Dastan” (epopee) part of the muqam to demonstrate the characteristics of the Uyghur music, especially its rhythmic complexity. This extract of the music is named “Rak,” performed with Uyghur traditional musical instruments, “Setar” and “Tembor.”
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
Trebinjac女士选择“达斯坦”部分的木卡姆来展现维吾尔音乐的特点,特别是它旋律的复杂性。此音乐片段名为“Rak”,由维吾尔传统乐器“萨塔尔琴”和“弹拨尔”演奏。
Titre: An extract of the music : A “muqam” from “Bom bayawan”
Durée: 00:05:26   [00:40:40 > 00:46:06]
The second extract of music is a “Dolan Muqam” called “Bom bayawan” (“bom” means desert) which is comprised of four parts.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
第二段音乐片段为“ 刀郎木卡姆”名为“Bom bayawan”,由四部分组成。
Titre: Two memories of Uyghur musicians and their attitudes towards recording
Durée: 00:05:14   [00:46:06 > 00:51:20]
Trebinjac notes that Uyghur musicians have two memories: one for registering traditional version of the music; another for the original version. In terms of the attitudes towards recording the traditional (non-transformed) versions of the music, Trebinjac notes that when asked Uyghur singers would always give authorization for recording. However, there was some reservation, on the part of local music official, towards the recording and reproduction of non-traditionalized music.
Titre: The technical aspects of music recording
Durée: 00:02:52   [00:51:20 > 00:54:13]
The continental climate in Xinjiang poses constraints on the recording material. It has to endure the variations in temperature. Trebinjac chose to use tape recorder with metallic structures.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
由于受新疆地区大陆气候的印象,录音设备需要能够忍受各种温度的考验。最终,Trebinjac女士使用的是有金属构架保证的磁带录音设备。
Titre: Directions for future research
Durée: 00:02:52   [00:54:13 > 00:56:02]
In the future, Trebinjac wishes to study the music genre of a group of nomadic fishing community in Xinjiang.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
Trebinjac女士希望在今后开展对新疆的游牧民族的音乐的研究。

15 chapitres.
  • Before leaving for China, Sabine Trebinjac was trained as a historian, as well as in Chinese and Oriental Studies. In 1982, she came to study Ancient History of China at Beijing University where she received a Master degree. Upon returning to France four years later, Trebinjac resumed her studies in History at Sorbonne University and obtained Maîtrise en Histoire. Then, she changed research directions after being introduced to ethnomusicology studies at University of Paris Nanterre, where she obtained a DEA (Le diplôme d'études approfondies). Afterwards, she started her field research on Uyghur music in Xinjiang.
  • Trebinjac points out that the practice of music inventory is a Chinese tradition. Music plays an important role in the state building process in China. She also laid out the process of the practice of music inventory: Central government first ordered the local authority to collect folk music; The collected music, after being refashioned by the music conservatory, was then reintroduced to the local level. Specifically, Trebinjac employs the term “state traditionalism (traditionalisme d’Etat)” to capture the practice of purging folk music, and presenting a “cleaned” version of music, as sanctioned by the state.
  • Trebinjac discusses the differences between citizenship and nationality, while talking about Han majority and ethnic minorities in China. While all ethnicities in China have the same citizenship, as Trebinjac argues, being “Han” or “Uyghur” speak of different nationalities. She further argues that the concept of “Chinese music” does not exist on its own, as each ethnic music genre has its unique musicological origin. In this sense, “Chinese music” is constituted by many musical traditions.
  • Uyghur music can be further divided into two branches: the classical music genre which integrates “muqam”, on the one hand; and popular music, on the other hand.
  • Trebinjac notes that Uyghur musicians have two memories: one for registering traditional version of the music; another for the original version. In terms of the attitudes towards recording the traditional (non-transformed) versions of the music, Trebinjac notes that when asked Uyghur singers would always give authorization for recording. However, there was some reservation, on the part of local music official, towards the recording and reproduction of non-traditionalized music.
Titre: An ethno-sociological view on the Chinese and Uyghur music
Sous-titre: Sabine Trebinjac
Auteur(s): EYYUBOVA Aygun, TREBINJAC Sabine
Date de réalisation: 28/06/2007
Lieu de réalisation: Fondation Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 54 bd raspail, 75006 Paris, France
In this interview, Sabine Trebinjac discussed her studies of Uyghur music, its unique characteristics as well as the various ways in which “state traditionalism” is employed in China to refashion traditional music in order to produce the “Chinese music.”
The production of state rectified music, Trebinjac argues, speaks of the need to legitimize the presence of the state on the regional level. The transformation of traditional music helps the state to construct a unifying national identity. Moreover, Trebinjac introduces the genre "muqam" to demonstrate the unique characteristics of Uyghur music from an ethnomusicological point of view, while pointing out the rhythmic differences between "Han" and "Uyghur" music.
Sujet: Musicologie
Topique: Ethnomusicologie
Libellé: Ethnomusicological studies of Uyghur music
Mots-clés: Uyghur; China;
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire) ; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
The research of the practice of music collection and traditionalization of Uyghur music covered the time span of 25 dynasties.
Localisation temporelle du sujet: From Ancient China to Contemporary Period
Sabine Trebinjac's research on the practice of music inventory in China (collecting folk music) and traditionalization of Uyghur music covered a time span of 25 dynasties.
Aspects rhétoriques et discursifs: Explication ; Le sujet est traité exclusivement du point de vue de l'auteur
As an ethnomusicologist, Sabine Trebinjac presents the characteristics of Uyghur music based on her own field research.
Ethnomusicology is an academic field that includes various approaches to the study of music. It emphasizes the cultural and social dimensions of musical practice.
Sujet: Musiques du monde par genre
Topique: Muqam
Libellé: Uyghur music
Mots-clés: Uyghur
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire) ; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region is the largest administrative division in China, with the capital city at Ürümqi.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is the largest administrative division in China.
Localisation temporelle du sujet: From Ancient China to Contemporary period
Sabine Trebinjac's research on the practice of music inventory in China (collecting folk music) and traditionalization of Uyghur music covered a time span of 25 dynasties.
Aspects rhétoriques et discursifs: Explication ; Le sujet est traité exclusivement du point de vue de l'auteur
As an ethnomusicologist, Sabine Trebinjac treats the subject of state traditionalism of Uyghur music, from her own interpretations of the practice of music inventory in China and its implications on the power dynamics between the central state and local communities.
Muqam is a music genre that has its origin at Xinjiang Uyghur population. Each of the 12 muqams begins with an introduction and then followed by three parts, including naghma, dastan and mashrap.
Sujet: Traditions, coutumes et moeurs
Topique: Music inventory
Langue d'origine: Zhongwen (中文)
Expression en langue originale: 民乐采集
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire)
Localisation temporelle du sujet: From Ancient China to Contemporary Period
The research of the practice of music collection and traditionalization of Uyghur music covered the time span of 25 dynasties.
Sabine Trebinjac's research on the practice of music inventory in China (collecting folk music) and traditionalization of Uyghur music covered a time span of 25 dynasties.
Aspects rhétoriques et discursifs: Explication ; Le sujet est traité exclusivement du point de vue de l'auteur
As an ethnomusicologist, Sabine Trebinjac treats the subject of state traditionalism of Uyghur music, from her own interpretations of the practice of music inventory in China and its implications on the power dynamics between the central state and local communities.
民乐采集是指从汉武帝开始通过设立乐府来进行收集编纂各地民间音乐的传统。乐府负责整理改编民乐、演唱及演奏。
Sujet: Musiques du monde par origine (géographique, culturelle)
Topique: Musique ouïghoure
Libellé: The traditionalization of Uyghur music by the Chinese state
Mots-clés: Traditionalization; Music collection
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire) ; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region is the largest administrative division in China, with the capital city at Ürümqi.
Localisation temporelle du sujet: From Ancient China to Contemporary Period
Sabine Trebinjac's research on the practice of music inventory in China (collecting folk music) and traditionalization of Uyghur music covered a time span of 25 dynasties.
Aspects rhétoriques et discursifs: Explication ; Le sujet est traité exclusivement du point de vue de l'auteur
As an ethnomusicologist, Sabine Trebinjac treats the subject of state traditionalism of Uyghur music, from her own interpretations of the practice of music inventory in China and its implications on the power dynamics between the central state and local communities.
Uyghur music is refering to musical elements and practices of the Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region of China.
Sujet: Chant et chanson
Topique: Rak
Mots-clés: Rak; Muqam; Uyghur
Langue d'origine: -
Expression en langue originale: راك مۇقامى
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire) ; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region is the largest administrative division in China, with the capital city at Ürümqi.
Localisation temporelle du sujet: From Ancient China to Contemporary Period
The research of the practice of music collection and traditionalization of Uyghur music covered the time span of 25 dynasties.
Aspects rhétoriques et discursifs: Explication ; Le sujet est traité exclusivement du point de vue de l'auteur
As an ethnomusicologist, Sabine Trebinjac introduces the musical instruments based on her own field research and her interaction with local musicians.
Rak (راك مۇقامى拉克, Lākè
Sujet: Instruments de musique
Topique: Rawap; Uyghur;
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire) ; Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region
Xinjiang autonomous region is the largest administrative division in China, with the capital city at Ürümqi.
Aspects rhétoriques et discursifs: Exemplification ; Le sujet est traité exclusivement du point de vue de l'auteur
Trebinjac introduced the use of "Rawap" through an example of her internaction with a local musician.
As an ethnomusicologist, Sabine Trebinjac introduces the musical instruments based on her own field and her interaction with local musicians.
Rawap is a stringed musical instrument, for performing Uyghur music.
Sujet: Instruments de musique
Topique: Satar
Langue d'origine: -
Expression en langue originale: ساتار
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire) ; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region is the largest administrative division in China, with the capital city at Ürümqi.
Localisation temporelle du sujet: From Ancient China to Contemporary Period
Aspects rhétoriques et discursifs: Explication ; Le sujet est traité exclusivement du point de vue de l'auteur
As a musicologist, Sabine Trebinjac introduces the use of traditional Uyghur music instruments based on her field research and her interaction with local musicians.
Satar (Uyghur: ساتار‎; Chinese: 萨塔尔琴) is an important instrument in twelve muqam.
Uyghur
Sujet: Musique et société
Topique: Uyghur community
Mots-clés: Uyghur
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire) ; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region is the largest administrative division in China, with the capital city at Ürümqi.
Localisation temporelle du sujet: From Ancient China to Contemporary period
The research of the practice of music collection and traditionalization of Uyghur music covered the time span of 25 dynasties.
Aspects rhétoriques et discursifs: Interprétation ; Le sujet est traité exclusivement du point de vue de l'auteur
Sabine Trebinjac interprets the role of music in Chinese society from her own point of view. According to her, the transformation of traditional music is indicative of the power relationships between minority and majority group.
Sabine Trebinjac interpreted the role of music in the society from her own point of view.
Sujet: Instruments de musique
Topique: Uyghur tembor
Mots-clés: Uyghur; Tembor
Langue d'origine: -
Localisation spatiale du sujet: Chine (République populaire) ; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region
Xinjiang autonomous region is the largest administrative division in China, with the capital city at Ürümqi.
Aspects rhétoriques et discursifs: Explication ; Le sujet est traité exclusivement du point de vue de l'auteur
As an ethnomusicologist, Sabine Trebinjac introduces the musical instruments based on her own field research and her interaction with local musicians.
"Tembor" is long-necked string instruments, originating in Central Asia. "Tembor" is a key Uyghur musical instrument in Xinjiang Tembor is a stringed musical instrument used in the music of Xinjiang by the Uyghur ethnic group.
Type: Collections audiovisuelles
Url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTod8gTuyCg
Traditional Muqam music collection, audio-video resources from the conference on 12 Muqam. 維吾爾族十二木卡姆研討會珍藏紀念版1-拉克.-武顯貴.收集資料.
Langue: Zhongwen (中文)
Type: Traductions synthétiques
Sabine Trebinjac 女士在本次访谈中介绍了她在维吾尔音乐方面研究课题。Trebinjac女士介绍了以汉乐府为代表,自汉代就建立起来的对民族音乐的吸纳、再加工、进而打造“中国音乐”的体制。Trebinjac女士认为对民乐的采集和再加工出于在地方巩固中央政权的考虑。对传统民乐的吸收和融合也是有助于打造一个中华民族的统一本体。Trebinjac女士通过介绍“木卡姆”的音乐形式,从民族音乐学的角度展示维吾尔音乐的独特风格,以及它与汉族音乐在韵律上的区别。
Type: Présentation(s) générale(s)
This interview presents an ethnomusicological point of view on the characteristics of Uyghur music and the role of music in the construction of a national identity in China.
Type: Contexte "Recherche"
Public cible: Pour tout public
The interview with ethno-musicologist Sabine Trebinjac is intended to invite the general public to have a general understanding of the Uyghur music in China.
EYYUBOVA Aygun, TREBINJAC Sabine. « Un regard ethnosociologique sur les musiques chinoise et ouïgoure» Archives Audiovisuelles de la Recherche (ARC), n°1051, 2013, [en ligne] ; URL : http://www.archivesaudiovisuelles.fr/1051/
Type: Droit d'auteur relatif à la production du document source
© ESCoM-AAR (Equipe Sémiotique Cognitive et Nouveaux Médias, Archives Audiovisuelles de la Recherche), FMSH (Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme), Paris, FRANCE
Type: Droit d'auteur relatif à la réalisation du document source
© BONNEMAZOU, Camille, Production director, ESCoM-FMSH, Paris, France, 2007 © EYYUBOVA, Aygun, Interviewer, ESCoM-FMSH, Paris, France, 2007
Type: Droit d'auteur relatif au contenu du document source
© TREBINJAC, Sabine, Researcher, CNRS, Paris, France, 2007 © EYYUBOVA, Aygun, Interviewer, FMSH, Paris, France, 2007
Type: Régime général "Creative Commons" relatifs au document source
This audiovisual resource is protected by the "Creative Commons" regime. You are free to reproduce it, distribute and communicate to the public. But you must report his paternity (its authors), you don't have the right to modify or to make commercial use. Reading, dissemination and practical exploitation of this audiovisual resource presupposes that you have accepted the Creative Commons legal rules described in the page
Titre: Chinese translation of a thematic analysis of the video « Un regard ethnosociologique sur les musiques chinoise et ouïgoure »
Langue(s): English
Type: Analyse plus détaillé
Comment citer: WEI, Boya. "Chinese translation of a thematic analysis in English of the video « Un regard ethnosociologique sur les musiques chinoise et ouïgoure » " (ARC, 2014) : http://www.arc.msh-paris.fr/
Id analyse: f997cff6-aa79-411e-8fb1-5977c8d39b3e
Id vidéo: bd6362e2-894c-408c-8a30-379ac11f9f8d
This analysis examines the different themes discussed in this interview with Sabine Trebinjac.